Inflammatory NF-κB activation promotes hepatic apolipoprotein B100 secretion: evidence for a link between hepatic inflammation and lipoprotein production

Julie Tsai, Rianna Zhang, Wei Qiu, Qiaozhu Su, Mark Naples, Khosrow Adeli

Abstract

Insulin-resistant states are commonly associated with chronic inflammation and hepatic overproduction of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), leading to hypertriglyceridemia and a metabolic dyslipidemic profile. Molecular mechanisms linking hepatic inflammatory cascades and the pathways of apoB100-lipoprotein production are, however, unknown. In the present study, we employed a diet-induced, insulin-resistant hamster model, as well as cell culture studies, to investigate the potential link between activation of hepatic inflammatory nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling cascade and the synthesis and secretion of apoB100-containing lipoproteins. Using an established insulin-resistant animal model, the fructose-fed hamster, we found that feeding fructose (previously shown to induce hepatic inflammation) for as little as 4 days reduced hepatic IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB) level, indicating activation of the inflammatory NF-κB cascade. Importantly, IKK (IκB kinase) inhibition was found to suppress apoB100 overproduction in fructose-fed hamster hepatocytes. As IKK, the upstream activator of NF-κB has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling, and insulin is a major regulator of apoB100, we modulated IKK activity in primary hamster hepatocytes and HepG2 cells and assessed the effects on hepatic apoB100 biosynthesis. Inhibition of the IKK-NF-κB pathway by BMS345541 and activation of the pathway by adenoviral-mediated IKK overexpression decreased and increased newly synthesized apoB100 levels, respectively. Pulse-chase and metabolic labeling experiments revealed that IKK activation regulates apoB100 levels at the levels of apoB100 biosynthesis and protein stability. Inhibition of the IKK-NF-κB pathway significantly enhanced proteasomal degradation of hepatic apoB100, while direct IKK activation led to reduced degradation and increased apoB100 mRNA translation. Together, our results reveal important links between modulation of the inflammatory IKK-NF-κB signaling cascade and hepatic synthesis and secretion of apoB100-containing lipoproteins. Hepatic inflammation may be an important underlying factor in hepatic apoB100 overproduction observed in insulin resistance.

  • fructose
  • insulin resistance
  • hamster
  • proteasomal degradation
  • triglycerides
  • cholesterol
  • translation
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