Morphological and functional alterations of hepatic mitochondria have been documented in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our recent study demonstrated that zinc level was decreased in whole liver and mitochondria by chronic alcohol feeding. The present study was undertaken to determine whether zinc deficiency mediates alcohol-induced mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) defect and whether defective ETC function may lead to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Male Wistar rats were pair fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol diet for 5 mo. Chronic alcohol exposure increased hepatic triglyceride, free fatty acid, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) levels; meanwhile hepatic mitochondrial 4HNE level was also increased. Moreover, hepatic mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, III, IV, and V and hepatic ATP production were decreased by chronic alcohol exposure. Chronic alcohol feeding decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and mitochondrial DNA. HepG2 cells were treated with N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) for 6 h. Zinc deficiency significantly decreased mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, III, and IV. In addition, PGC1α, NRF1, and TFAM levels as well as mitochondrial DNA were significantly decreased by TPEN treatment. Knockdown of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, III, or IV by shRNA caused a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that alcohol-induced hepatic zinc deficiency could inactivate mitochondrial biogenesis pathway and decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, which, in turn, decreases mitochondrial complex protein expression. The defect of mitochondrial respiratory complexes may worsen alcohol-induced ROS production.
- alcoholic liver disease, zinc, mitochondrial complex, ROS
- Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society
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