Impairment of gut barrier is associated with a fat-rich diet, but mechanisms are unknown. We have earlier shown that dietary fat modifies fecal bile acids in mice, decreasing the proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) vs. deoxycholic acid (DCA). To clarify the potential role of bile acids in fat-induced barrier dysfunction, we here investigated how physiological concentrations of DCA and UDCA affect barrier function in mouse intestinal tissue. Bile acid experiments were conducted in vitro in Ussing chambers using 4 and 20 kDa FITC-labeled dextrans. Epithelial integrity and inflammation were assayed by histology and Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase-2. LPS was studied in DCA-induced barrier dysfunction. Finally, we investigated in a 10-week in vivo feeding trial in mice the barrier-disrupting effect of a diet containing 0.1 % DCA. DCA disrupted epithelial integrity dose-dependently at 1-3 mM, which correspond to physiological concentrations on a high-fat diet. Low-fat diet-related concentrations of DCA had no effect. In vivo, the DCA-containing diet increased intestinal permeability 1.5-fold compared to control (P = 0.016). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed a clear disruption of the epithelial barrier by 3 mM DCA in vitro. A short-term treatment by DCA did not increase cyclooxygenase-2 content in colon preparations. UDCA did not affect barrier function itself, but ameliorated DCA-induced barrier disruption at a 0.6 mM concentration. LPS had no significant effect on barrier function at 0.5-4.5 µg/ml concentrations. We suggest a novel mechanism for barrier dysfunction on a high-fat diet involving the effect of hydrophobic luminal bile acids.
- Deoxycholic acid
- Intestinal permeability
- Ursodeoxycholic acid
- Copyright © 2012, American Journal of Physiology- Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology