Background: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) leads to a shift in small intestinal microbiota with a characteristic dominance of Proteobacteria. This study examined how metabolomic changes within the small bowel support an altered microbial community in enterally deprived mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were given TPN or enteral chow. Metabolomic analysis of jejunal contents was performed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In some experiments, leucine in TPN was partly substituted with 13C-leucine. Additionally, jejunal contents from TPN dependent and enterally fed mice were gavaged into germ-free mice to reveal if the TPN phenotype was transferrable. Results: Small bowel contents of TPN mice maintained an amino acid composition similar to that of the TPN solution. Mass spectrometry analysis of small bowel contents of TPN dependent mice showed increased concentration of 13C compared to fed mice receiving saline enriched with 13C-leucine. 13C-leucine added to the serosal side of Ussing chambers showed rapid permeation across TPN-dependent jejunum, suggesting increased transmucosal passage. Single-cell analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) - NanoSIMS demonstrated uptake of 13C-leucine by TPN-associated bacteria, with preferential uptake by Enterobacteriaceae. Gavage of small bowel effluent from TPN mice into germ-free, fed mice resulted in a trend toward the pro-inflammatory TPN-phenotype with loss of epithelial barrier function. Conclusions: TPN-dependence leads to increased permeation of TPN-derived nutrients into the small intestinal lumen, where they are predominately utilized by Enterobacteriaceae. The altered metabolomic composition of the intestinal lumen during TPN promotes dysbiosis.
- total parenteral nutrition
- nutrient foraging
- epithelial barrier function
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology