Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are a major health burden in industrialized countries. Although alcohol abuse and nutrition play a central role for disease pathogenesis, preclinical models support a contribution of the gut microbiota to ALD and NAFLD. This review describes changes in the intestinal microbiota compositions related to ALD and NAFLD. Findings from in vitro, animal and human studies are used to explain how intestinal pathology contributes to disease progression. It summarizes the effects of untargeted microbiome modifications using antibiotics and probiotics on liver disease in animals and humans. While both affect humoral inflammation, the regression of advanced liver disease or mortality has not yet been demonstrated. The review further describes products secreted by Lactobacillus and microbiota-derived metabolites, such as fatty acids and antioxidants, that could be used for precision medicine in the treatment of liver disease. Better understanding of host-microbial interactions is now allowing discovery of novel therapeutic targets in the gut microbiota, enabling new treatment options that restore the intestinal ecosystem precisely and influence liver disease. The presented modulation options of the gut microbiota and precision medicine employing the gut microbiota have excellent prospects to improve liver disease treatment.
- Alcoholic liver disease
- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
- intestinal microbiome
- precision medicine
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology